Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses Museum
Terra-cotta Warriors Museum
Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses
Excavation Work in Pit No.1
Terra-cotta General in Pit No. 2
The height of the terracotta warriors varies from 1.78 meters to 1.97. Their weights are also different. The lightest is less than 110 kilogram and the heaviest 300 kilogram. The roughly made models were carved exquisitely in detail according to their personal strata and characters. Finally, moustache and hair in various styles were made. After careful and detailed engraving, the terracotta warriors looked vivid, different in appearance and expressions. It is presumed that each warrior was made according to the real valiant Qin army soldier.
After the terracotta warriors were readily made, they were put into kilns to be baked. The clay figures were carefully painted with colors after they were baked. As the figures have been burnt and gone through a natural process of decay, we can not see their original gorgeous colors. However, most of the figures bear the traces of the original colors, and a few of them are still as bright as new.
The Qin weapons
Thousands of real weapons were unearthed from the pits, including broad knives, swords,
Kneeling Archer in Pit No.2
The most arresting among the weapons is a bronze sword, which still glitters in metallic luster without being rusting, though buried underground for over 2,000 years. Technical examination reveals that sword is composed of an alloy of copper and tin, and more than ten other rare metals. It is plated with thin layer of oxidized chromium, which proves that weapon was oxidized with chromium when it was made. The technology of chromium coating was invented by the Germans in the 1930s, but in China chromium-coating technique was employed in the making of weapons over 2,000years ago. It is really a wonder and compels admiration.
The Bronze Chariots and Horses
No.1 Bronze Chariot - High Chariot
No.2 Bronze Chariot - Comfortable Chariot
The chariots and horses are exactly the imitations of actual chariots and horses in half-size. Each chariot with horses is composed of 3,400 components. The bronze chariot is 3.17 meters long and 1.06 meters high. The bronze horse is 65-67 centimeters high, 1.2 meters long. Their weights vary from 177 kilograms, the lightest, to 212.9 kilograms, the heaviest. The total weight of the chariot, the horses and the driver is 1,243 kilograms. The main body is cast in bronze. There are altogether 1,720 pieces of gold and silver ornaments on the chariots and horses, with a total weight of seven kilograms of silver and gold wares. The umbrella-like canopy on the top is only four millimeters thick, and the window is one millimeter thick, with many ventilation holes. The horse tassels were made of bronze thread as thin as hair, whose diameter is only 0.1 millimeter. The horse necklaces were welded together with 42 nodes of gold and 42 nodes of silver. Archaeologists can see the welding joints only with a magnifier. The horses halters, made up of a gold tube and a silver tube, were joined with snap fasteners. In the halters, there is a pin. When the pin was pulled out, the halters could be removed completely. According to preliminary research, the making of the bronze chariots and horses involves different techniques such as casting, welding, riveting, mounting, embedding and carving.
The bronze chariots and horses were the earliest and most exquisitely and intricately made bronze valuables. They enjoy the highest class and have the most complete harnessing wares. They are also the largest bronze wares discovered in the history of world archaeology. The excavation of the bronze chariots and horses provides extremely valuable material and data for the textual research of the metallurgical technique, the mechanism of chariots and technological modeling of the Qin Dynasty.
Opening Hours: 08：30－17：30
Ticket Price: Peak Season (Mach 1-November 30): CNY 150; Low Season (December 1-end of February):CNY 110
The Qin came to power in 221BC as one of the western states that existed during the Warring States Period. Its leaders conquered the other warring states and unified China for the first time. A ruler, the First Emperor, or Qin Emperor Shihuang, was named inciting the long emperor tradition in China. The Qin, which was not the most culturally advanced of the Warring States, was the strongest in terms of military. The empire utilized many new technologies in warfare, especially the cavalry. The Qin is most likely where the name China originated.
Qin Shihuang's Profile
Qin Shihuang (259-210 BC) was originally known as Ying Zheng. He came to the throne of the Qin State at 13, and seized the helm of the state at 22. by 221 BC, when he was only 39 years old, he had annexed the six rival principalities and established the first centralized, united, multi-ethnic feudal empire in Chinese history-the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC). He considered his achievements surpassing the legendary "San Huang (three Emperors)" and "Wu Di (Five Sovereigns)". Therefore, he created a new title for himself: "Huangdi" together with "Shi (means the first)". He proclaimed himself "Qin Shihuang" or "Qin Shihuagdi", which means he was the firs emperor of China, in the hope that the throne would be passed down to his descendants from one generation to another and that the hereditary system would be kept in working order forever. Each of the supreme rulers in later dynasties also called himself "emperor".
After he annexed the other six principalities, Qin Shihuang abolished the enfeoffment system, and adopted the prefecture and county system instead. A series of steps were taken by his order to standardize the coinage, weights and measurements, the legal codes, the axle length of carts, and the written scripts. He ordered to construct a road system linking a few states. This system became the basis of ancient roads, which was important for transportation and economic exchanges. All these measures played an important role in strengthening the unification of the whole country and promoting the cultural and economic development. They exerted an everlasting influence upon the 2000-year-long feudal history of China.
In order to exercise thought control, Qin Shihuang ordered that all books of various schools be burned except those on agriculture, divination, medicine and the Qin's history. Moreover, he also ordered 460 Confucian scholars be buried alive. As a result, almost all of the classics were destroyed.
After the unification of China, Qin Shihuang became more arrogant and ambitious than ever because he believed that his contributions to the state were beyond compare, and he was even greater than the legendary Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns. For the sake of his own pleasure, he had hundreds of thousands of conscripts build Epang Palace, which extended 50 kilometres from Xianyang (the capital) to Mount Lishan. Unfortunately, the palace was put on fire by the insurrection army at the end of the Qin dynasty. It was said that the big fire lasted for three months. We can well imagine how grand and magnificent his palace must have been.
Qin Shihuang's historic contributions to China
1. Ended more than 250 years of rivalry among the independent principalities during the Warring States Period. Qin Shihuang was the founder of the first unified empire in the history of China.
2. Abolished the enfeoffment system and adopted the prefecture and county system instead, and established an autocratic state with centralized power over the feudal society; Qin Shihuang created a new title for monarch: "Huangdi". The sovereigns of the next 2,200 years followed the feudal governmental structure established by him.
3. Unified the Chinese written language.
4. Standardized the coinage, weights and measurements, the legal codes, the axle length of carts.
5. Constructed the first canal Lingqu, and widened and paved countless roads all over China. This system became the basis of ancient roads, which was important for transportation and economic exchanges.
6. Linked the Great Wall, one of the Eight Wonders of the World. It was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.
7. Built hundreds of imperial palaces and developed many cities, and ordered a massive and extensive tomb to be built for himself, left many precious historical legacies. The Mausoleum of Qin Shihuang and Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses were made a UNESO World Heritage Site in 1987.